E. Smirnova Medical civil servants in the Russian province (1700’s – mid
Elena M. Smirnova – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of History and Philosophy, Yaroslavl State Medical Academy
This article is based on little-known documents dealing with questions regarding the development of civil medicine in Russia during the 1700’s – mid 1800’s. (Yaroslavl province is taken as an example). It focuses on the process of the formation of medical establishments. Social structure, educational and research achievements, career development, and social growth are investigated. It is concluded that the medical intelligentsia was recruited from petty bourgeoisie, clergy, and nobility. The medical establishment was guided by the Supreme power in the Russian bureaucratic system and medical professionals occupied the position of middle-rank civil servants in the bureaucratic hierarchy.
Yaroslavl province, medicine, medical establishment, medical men, social structure, rank, civil servant, bureaucratic hierarchy
T. Troshina Common public drunkenness in the European North of Russia (end
of the 1800’s – beginning of 1900’s)
Tatyana I. Troshina – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Northern (Arctic) Federal University (Arkhangelsk)
On the basis of archival and literary sources this article studies common public drunkenness, which due to urbanization and modernization began to develop into a social problem at the end of the XIX c. (the European North of Russia is taken as an example). Attention is paid to the people’s willful intoxication as a form of the traditional culture and as a result of the state policy, which aimed to stop the use of bread products as a base for making strong drinks and the involvement of the peasant population in commodity-money transactions. It is concluded that the social and cultural conflict that occurred due to this caused tension in the relationship between the population and the authorities and the destruction of the intercommunal unity.
European North of Russia, folk culture, drunkenness, urbanization, modernization, economic policy, social and cultural conflict
A. Astashov Fraternisation on the Russian front during the First World War
Alexander B. Astashov – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
This article, based on documents from the Russian state military-history archive, looks at fraternization on the Eastern (Russian) front during the First World War. The main focus is on the causes of fraternization, its character, scale and development. The importance of peasant mentality, orthodox traditions, and customs of the majority of Russian soldiers is underlined. It is concluded that the fraternization deepened the ideologically-moral crisis in the army but the Bolsheviks were not able to use it in the interests of world revolution.
First World War, East (Russian) front, Russian army, soldiers, military discipline, peasant mentality, fraternization, world revolution
N. Ignatova Mortality of special settlers in the Northern Region in 1930’s:
causes, size, statistics
Nadezhda M. Ignatova – Candidate of History, Senior Staff scientist, Institute of Language, Literature and History, Komi Science Centre of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science (Syktyvkar)
This article based on previously unknown archival documents, deals with the mortality rates of special settlers (“former kulaks” – violent migrants, who were exiled during the collectivization from the places of the inhabitancy) in the Northern Region (Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast and Vologda oblast) and the census data of the 1930’s. Particular attention is paid to the reasons for high mortality among special settlers, the peculiarities of statistics of mortality by various government agencies, and the impact of various political, economic, and legal factors on the statistical data on mortality. It is concluded that the documents of public institutions of various departments do not contain the exact data on the number of special settlers, who died in the Northern Region in 1930’s.
Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Vologda oblast, special settlers, mortality, fertility, living conditions, supply, health care, statistics
M. Lipkin USSR and the first all-European organizations: was there a chance
for a United Europe? (1945–1947)
Mikhail A. Lipkin – Candidate of History, Deputy Director of the Institute of Word History of Russian Academy of Sciences
Based on new evidences from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation and the National Archives (UK) this article discusses the history of creation and evolution of the first post-war All-European projects such as The European Economic Committee and The European Coal Organization. It pays special attention to the Soviet policy-making mechanism and the analysis of factors “pro” and “contra” Soviet membership. It comes to the conclusion that despite a common economic interest in reconstruction of economies affected by the war in both Western and Eastern parts of Europe, the USSR restrained from participation because of the key geopolitical differences in approaches towards the future of Germany and the availability of alternative spheres of influence in Europe.
Europe, European Economic Committee, European Coal Organization, Great Britain, USSR, Germany, European integration, Cold war
D. Belyukov The history of the development of cycling in Russia (end of
1800’s – beginning of 1900’s)
Dmitry A. Belyukov – Candidate of History, Senior Lecture, Department of Humanities and Social-Economic Disciplines, Velikie Luki State Academy of Physical Training and Sport (Velikie Luki, Pskov oblast)
This article, based on previously unknown archival documents, analyses the development of cycling in Russia in the end of XIX – the beginning of XX cc. (Pskov province is taken as an example). It focuses on the regulation of cycling by the Pskov province officials and city councils, the creation and activity of Pskov cyclist’s society, and the development of cycling. The author concludes that public initiative and foundation of public organization of cyclists provided the spread of cycling, the establishment of sports clubs, and the popularizing of the sport among the inhabitants of Pskov province.
Pskov province, rules of cycling, Pskov cyclists society, cycling, sports society, sports club
G. Kuznetsov How they smashed “the mother of all Russian cities” (1905)
Gleb R. Kuznetsov – Graduate Student, Department of Russian History of the XIX – early XX cc., History Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University
This article, based on previously unused documents of the Russian secret police, deals with the history of the Kiev pogrom of 1905 which occurred after the announcement of the Manifesto of October 17. It focuses on the relationship between the political and the nationalistic as motivation for conflict participants. It is concluded that the Kiev pogrom during its first stage was an armed clash between two civil parties – the revolutionaries and the Black Hundreds – with effortlessly demoralized the authorities. During the second stage as the result of the features of an anti-government movement in the Western part of the Russian empire, the collision assumed the character of an anti-Jewish pogrom.
Revolution of 1905, Western part, Kiev, Manifesto of October 17th, Kiev pogrom, anti-Jewish pogrom, Black Hundreds
M. Dostal Historian-emigre A.V. Florovsky in Czechoslovakia: episodes of
scientific creative works
Marina Yu. Dostal – candidate of History, senior research worker, Institute of Slavonic Studies of Russian Academy of Sciences
This article is based on previously unknown documents. It presents an analysis of the creative works of the Russian historian-emigre A.V. Florovsky in Czechoslovakia during the 1930’s, his contribution to Hussite historiography, and in the research of the Hussite movement, which was a central event in Czech history of the 15th century. It focuses on the appointment of the Russian-Lithuanian Prince Sigismund Koributovich, as well as the analysis of the role of Jan Hus who was viewed as a dangerous heretic by the Russian Orthodox Church and by the Slavophiles, as a Czech national hero. The author concluded that A.V. Florovsky in spite of the difficult conditions of immigration, got the opportunity to research new historical sources, and made an original and important contribution in the fields European and Czech Hussite historiography.
A.V. Florovsky, Russian emigration, Czechoslovakia, Prague, Hussite historiography, Jan Hus, Slavophiles
Landmarks in Human History
K. Solovyov Vasily Kelsiev: the path of an intellectual into the Revolution
Kirill A. Solovyov – Candidate of History, Lecturer, Department of History and Theory of Historical Science, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
This article analyses V.I. Kelsiev’s role in the revolutionary movement of the 1860’s. The research is based on previously unknown secret documents of the secretl police and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as well as on political essays, memoirs and private letters. The author focuses on the circumstances which differentiated his revolutionary activity such as the propaganda among church dissenters (Raskolniks) who to him seemed to be the main oppositional element in Russian society. It is concluded that the contact with the church dissenters showed V.I. Kelsiev their indifference to politics and their loyalty towards the authorities and thus made him reconsider his revolutionary views and stop revolutionary activity.
V.I. Kelsiev, A.I. Hertzen, revolutionary movement, church dissenters (Raskolniks), opposition, revolutionary propaganda, political police
S. Sadovnikov Fighter-pilot Anatoly Tarasov: «The enemy invaded the
Motherland of Russian people»
Sergey I. Sadovnikov – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Research Institute of Development of Professional Education (Moscow)
The author, based on his research of the documents from the Central Archive of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation as well as extensive correspondence, reconstructs the family history and military service of the fighter-pilot captain A.L. Tarasov. Special attention is paid to the circumstances of his last battle flight. The pilot launched the ramming attack in August 1942 and was considered to be missing in action for 57 years until a search party found his remains in the fragments of the plane in the Smolensk region. It is concluded that only a complex scientific and practical approach to organizing search parties and archival research has led to the successful discovery of the pilot’s relatives.
A.L. Tarasov, Second World War, Great Patriotic war, Red army, fighters, ramming attack, missing in action, searching activities, Central Archive of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
History on Screen
M. Babkin Film “Tsar”: absurdities of cinematographic images of The
Russian Orthodox Church
Mikhail A. Babkin – Doctor of History, Professor, Department of Contemporary History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
This article analyzes the historical film “Tsar” (2009) directed by P. Lungin. It focuses on the cinematographic images of Russian Orthodoxy and The Russian Orthodox Church during the times of Tsar Ivan The Terrible and Moscow Metropolitan Phillip (XVI c.). It is concluded that these cinematographic images are historically inaccurate and form distorted ideas about Moscovite Rus of the XVI c.
Film “Tsar”, P. Lungin, Ivan The Terrible, Moscow Metropolitan Phillip, Russian Orthodoxy, Russian Orthodox Church, cinematographic image
L. Taimasova Vertical slice of the chain of power: an epitaph to the film “Tsar”
Lyudmila Yu. Taimasova – Intern of the European Division of the Library of Congress (USA), writer
This article analyzes the historical film “Tsar” (2009) directed by P. Lungin. It focuses on the cinematographic images of Tsar Ivan The Terrible and tsarist power in Moscovite Rus of XVI c. It is concluded that these cinematographic images are historically inaccurate and form distorted ideas about Moscovite Rus of XVI c.
Film “Tsar”, P. Lungin, Ivan The Terrible, tsarist power, cinematographic image
I. Kurukin Concerning “one’s swines” and the will of Peter I
Igor V. Kurukin – Doctor of History, Professor, Department of Medieval and Early Modern History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The article analyzes the historical film “Peter the First. The Will” (2011) directed by V. Bortko. It focuses on the cinematographic images of Emperor Peter I, his closest confidantes, and imperial power in Russia at the beginning of XVIII c. It is concluded that these cinematographic images are partly historically inaccurate.
Film “Peter the First. The will”, V. Bortko, Peter the First, A.D. Menshikov, imperial power, cinematographic image
S. Karpenko “Reactor exploded” heaven knows where: historian’s
“reflection” on the film “Innocent Saturday”
Sergey V. Karpenko – Candidate of History, Senior Lecturer, Department of Contemporary History of Russia, Institute for History and Archives of RSUH
The critical analysis examines in detail the film “Innocent Saturday” (2011) directed by A. Mindadze. It focuses on the cinematographic images of à reactor disaster at a nuclear power plant and the Soviet state of the middle of 1980’s. It is concluded that these cinematographic images are historically inaccurate and create distorted ideas about the Chernobyl disaster and the USSR of the middle of 1980’s.
Film “Innocent Saturday”, A. Mindadze, Chernobyl nuclear power plant, USSR, Ukraine, Pripyat city, Chernobyl disaster
V. Chicheryukin-Meyngardt Book Review: Volkov S.V., Strelyanov (Kalabukhov) P.N. Chiny Russkogo korpusa: Biografichesky spravochnik v fotografiyakh. Moscow, 2009.
Vladimir G. Chicheryukin-Meyngardt – Candidate of History, teaching methods specialist, Methodical Department of RSU